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First Responder medical reference sheet

 Scene safety, Universal precautions, Initial assessment, ABC's                       ,physical,ongoing assessment, handover.

    Symptoms, allergies ,medication, past history, last intake, events leading up to.

Responsiveness..... Alert, Verbal, Painful, Unresponsive

Pain.... Region , Severity, Time

      Mental .... Alcohol, Epilepsy, Insulin, Trauma, Infection, Psycho, Shock.

      Heart rate.... Pulse rate; inf 80--160 , child; 80--100 , adult; 80--100

    Breathing... Resp; inf 24--40, child 20--30 adult; 12--28

       Arteries.... Neck; carotid, arm ; brachial , wrist ; radial leg ; femoral, foot; dorsal     pedis

        C.P.R. .... 1 Rescuer adult; 15--2 child 5--1 inf 5--1 (4 reps)

    2 Rescuer adult; 5--1 child 5--1 (12 reps)

       Compression Depth Adult 1 1/2 to 2 ins ......child 1 to 1 1/2 ins .... inf 1/2 to 1 in.

   Rescue Breathing.... Adult 5 sec child 3 sec inf 3 sec


Shock


 Symptoms ; weakness, nausea , thirst , dizziness, fear.

      Signs; restlessness. external bleeding, vomiting , state of awareness.

Breathing ; shallow and rapid .

                        Pulse; rapid and       weak

Skin; pale , cool , clammy ,profuse sweating.

         Face ; pale , blue colour lips , tongue & ear lobes.

Eyes ; lackluster, pupils are dilated.


CARE AND PREVENTION ARE THE SAME

Treatment .... Keep at rest , lying down, covered to stay warm, maintain airway, control external bleeding and splint major fractures, elevate the lower extremities in most cases, give oxygen 50% to 100% .

Internal bleeding.... assume when you detect..... skull wounds, vomiting or coughing up blood

Bruises on the neck or chest, possible fractured ribs and penetrating wounds to the chest. Hardness or spasms of the abdominal muscles, bleeding from the rectum or vagina.Fractures to the pelvis and the long bones of the upper arm and thigh and the ribs.

Control of internal bleeding.... maintain airway, monitor breathing and pulse,care for shock.

keep patient lying still, loosen restrictive clothing, be alert for vomiting, do not give anything by

mouth , apply pressure dressing if internal bleeding is in an extremity.

VITAL SIGNS

Skin temperature & colour, Pulse, respiration's, Blood pressure taken every 5 mins

Skin temperature ;... cool and moist =shock ,bleeding, loss of blood.

cool and clammy= shock, heart attack, anxiety.

Skin colour;... Red= heart attack, high blood pressure, heat related emergency.

Pale , ashen= shock, heart attack,bleeding fright, reduced circulation.

Blue = airway problems ,heart failure, lack of oxygen.

Black and blue = seepage of blood under the skin surface.

Pulse;... rapid and weak = shock, blood loss, heat emergency, failing circulatory system, diabetic.

Slow and full;= stroke, skull fracture ,brain injury.

no pulse =cardiac arrest

Breathing;..Rapid , shallow,= shock, heart problems, heat emergency.

Deep , gasping ,= airway obstruction, heart failure,heart attack.

Slowed breathing;=head injury,stroke, chest injury.

Coughing blood= chest wound, fractured rib, punctured lung, internal injury.

Pupils;.... Dilated,unresponsive= unconsciousness, shock, cardiac arrest.

Constricted pupils = central nervous system damage, certain medications .

Unequal pupils = stroke ,heat injury.

Dull= shock , coma